A literature analysis of sources on synthesis methods and their influence on the structural-morphological, physico-chemical, and electrochemical properties of graphene and graphene-like structures was carried out. It was established that these properties have a clear dependence on the synthesis method, starting materials, and the composition of the synthesis medium.
The main ways of changing graphene's structural-morphological, physico-chemical and electrical properties are changes in the synthesis method and conditions that affect the formation of σ-bonds and π-bonds. The presence of these bonds regulates the number of graphene layers and the formation of van der Waals interactions between them, as well as the formation of edge structural defects responsible for electrokinetic and catalytic properties. Changing the gas medium to a liquid one greatly simplifies the synthesis of graphene. Still, in the case of a liquid nitrogen medium, simultaneously with a 2-dimensional structure, it is possible to form 3-dimensional particles up to tens of nanometers in size. Aqueous medium and plasma-arc synthesis methods are the most attractive for obtaining materials with electron-donor conductivity, which have attractive electrochemical and catalytic properties for use in chemical current sources and fuel cells. Using an aqueous environment requires mandatory further heat treatment at temperatures above 250 0C to separate chemisorbed water from the structure, which complicates the synthesis procedure. The advantage of the plasma-arc method for the synthesis of graphene and other carbon nanostructures is its ability to shorten the stages of the synthesis of graphene, the possibility of modifying them directly during the synthesis process by changing the environment, easy management, and obtaining a clean final product. In the modern practice, this method is limited to obtaining coatings on a solid carrier.
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