Thanks to the unique combination of physicochemical properties, niobium and its compounds are widely used in various fields of science and technology. The main areas of niobium’s applications are the production of superconductors, nuclear energy, chemical engineering, metallurgy, manufacture of optically active materials, thin-film lithium batteries, fuel cells. The aim of this work is to study the processes that take place on the niobium electrode in aqueous solutions of hydrofluoric acid, as well as to establish the composition of niobium compounds that are formed. The paper presents the results of studies the behavior of the niobium electrode in aqueous solutions 0.25 N. hydrofluoric acid. The kinetic parameters of the processes occurring at the phase boundary are determined. It was found that the anodic polarization of the niobium electrode is accompanied by the formation of a passive layer, the destruction of which is facilitated by increasing the polarization potential and fluorine anions, in the presence of which complex fluoroiobate anions [NbF7]2- and [NbOF5]2-are formed. Cathodic polarization of niobium is accompanied by the formation of hydrides on its surface, which causes an increase in the overvoltage of hydrogen evolution. The anodic polarization of the niobium electrode in a solution of hydrofluoric acid causes the formation on its surface of a passive layer, which is destroyed with increasing potential.
In the Nbo–NbO2–0.25 –0.25 n HF system, [NbF7]2-anions are formed, as evidenced by bands in the region of 500 nm on the electron absorption spectra. The rate constants of [NbF7]2- and [NbOF5]2- formation are estimated at 3.78 • 10-3 s-1 and 5.18 • 10-3 s-1, respectively.
The reduction of hydrogen at the niobium cathode from a solution of hydrofluoric acid is accompanied by the formation of hydrides, which causes an increase in the overvoltage of hydrogen evolution and high values of the angular coefficients of the Tafel dependence.
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