The method of directed formation of particles of hydrated zirconium and titanium oxides into anion exchange resins has been developed. The approach based on the Ostwald-Freundlich thermodynamic equation is applied. Such approach, in particular, connects the size of particles with the solubility of the compound, volume and concentration of reagents. Less soluble zirconium dioxide is deposited as non-aggregated nanoparticles, the size of which does not exceed 10 nm. The composition of such composites is the most reproducible. In the case of more soluble titanium dioxide, aggregates of nanoparticles (up to 70 nm) are formed. When the concentration of the solution of metal salts in the polymer increases, the particles of micron size are deposited, the composition of this type of material is less reproduced. Non-aggregated nanoparticles increase the exchange capacity of the polymer. This leads to an increase in its electrical conductivity in 1.4-1.8 times. This is due to an increase in the concentration of mobile charge carriers in the polymer matrix that is caused by reducing its swelling. Other reason is a contribution of the counter-ions of the functional groups of inorganic component to ion transport. On the contrary, the aggregates of nanoparticles amplify the polymer swelling, resulting in a reduction of exchange capacity and electrical conductivity. Ion-exchangers were used for the ion exchange processing of nanofiltration permeate of milky whey, and for electromembrane desalination of protein concentrate.
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